Title

Analysis of the bell-making process from the middle ages to recent times = Analyse des Glockenfertigungsverfahrens vom Mittelalter bis zur jungsten Zeit

Document Type

Journal Article

Publisher

Carl Hanser Verlag Munchen

Faculty

Regional Professional Studies

School

Regional Professional Studies

RAS ID

5061

Comments

This article was originally published as: Audy, K. , & Audy, J. (2006). Analysis of the bell-making process from the middle ages to recent times = Analyse des Glockenfertigungsverfahrens vom Mittelalter bis zur jungsten Zeit. Praktische Metallographie (Practical Metallography), 43(6), 271-292. Original article available here.

Abstract

This paper is focused on the evaluation and characterization of bells from the designing, forming and casting point of view. The principles and procedures associated with the production and fabrication of bells from the Middle Ages to the recent time were assessed and classified. A principal intention of this study was to identify features that relate to the quality of bells made in different centuries. Our information was derived from experimental investigations conducted on bells from various parts of the world, especially Europe and Australasia, as well as from historical documentation. The major focus was on a number of interrelated aspects, namely. bell design and sound development, forming process, and alloy type - composition, constitution and properties. In addition, metallographic examination and chemical analysis of selected specimens taken from various bells cast from the 15th to the 20th century was carried out in order to understand certain characteristics of, and relating to, the manufacturing process routes associated with the bells investigated. as influenced by alloy type, composition and desired microstructure. A set of representative unpublished photographs was presented to document the typical sequence of individual operations used in the production of bells cast during the 1920s in a European foundry. Moreover, examples from microstructures of bells cast in different countries and eras were presented to show the effect of cooling rate on the bell-material, grain shape and size caused by different properties of the forming mixtures used to prepare the bell mould. Finally, the influence of various elements in bell material compositions was appraised in the overall content of bell design.