Epidemiology and risk factors for community-associated Clostridium difficile infection: A narrative review
School of Medical and Health Sciences
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was once considered a primarily nosocomial concern. Emerging evidence from the last 20 years has highlighted a drastic shift in the known epidemiology of CDI, with disease outside of hospitals apparently occurring more frequently and causing severe disease in populations that were thought to be at low risk. This narrative review summarises potential pathways for infection outside of the hospital environment and highlights likely routes of transmission. Further, evidence is presented on potential risk factors for development of disease. Understanding the epidemiology of CDI outside of hospitals is essential to the ability to prevent and control disease in vulnerable populations.