School of Medical and Health Sciences
Background: Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is complicated by multiple cardio-metabolic risk factors. Controlling these factors requires lifestyle modifications alongside utilisation of anti-diabetic medications. Different glucose lowering [(biguanides (BIGs), sulfonylureas (SUAs), thiazolidinediones (TNZ)], lipid lowering (statins), and anti-hypertensive medicines [angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and central acting drugs (CADs)] have been approved for controlling hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and hypertension respectively. Here, we examined factors that characterise T2DM and explored the response to medication therapy among T2DM patients.
Methods: This prospective cohort study recruited 241 T2DM patients reporting at a clinic in Ghana, from January through to August, 2016. Each patient’s demographic, medications and anthropometric data was obtained while information on medication adherence was captured using Morisky adherence scale-8 (MMAS-8). Fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis.
Results: The mean age of participants was 57.82 years for baseline and six-month follow-up. Physical activity differed at baseline and follow up (p < 0.05) but not body mass index (BMI). BIG alone, or in combination with SUA and TNZ did not improve glycaemic status at follow up (p > 0.05). Many participants using either ACEI or ARB were able to control their blood pressures. Among dyslipidaemia patients under statin treatment, there was an improved lipid profile at follow-up.
Conclusions: Statin medications are effective for reducing dyslipidaemia in T2DM patients. However, control of modifiable risk factors, particularly blood glucose and to a lesser degree blood pressure is suboptimal. Addressing these will require concomitant interventions including education on medication adherence and correct dietary plans, lifestyle modifications and physical activity.
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