Asal Usul Formasi Savana: Tinjauan dari Nusa Tenggara Timur dan Hasil Penelitian di Baluran Jawa Timur [Origin of savanna formation: Literature review from East Nusa Tenggara and research results from Baluran East Java Indonesia]
School of Science
Savannas are ecosystems mostly confined to tropical and subtropical regions that are characterized by a continuous cover of C4 grasses that have different characteristics based on seasonality and where woody plants are also an important feature, but with sparse cover and no closed canopy. This is common formation in the driest part of Indonesia such as East Nusa Tenggara, however savana can also be found in Java Island: Baluran Savanna in East Java. There has been considerable amount of debat among scientists, botanists in Indonesia regarding the origin of Indonesian savanna. Using literature study and also field observation at Baluran National Park, combined with remote sensing technique and multivariate data analysis, this research concluded that savanna in Baluran National Park is originated from the monsoon forest/dry forest surrounding the area. This is drawn based on three findings: the existence of distinct borders or boundaries between savannas and adjacent forests that have no correlation with changes in soil types. The occurrence of forest tree species in savannas and the swift regrowth of shrubs and trees species when fire and grazing is excluded is contributing to this assumption. Lastly is history or records of intentional burning and/or natural fires that also strengthen this hypothesis.