Abstract Designing a questionnaire to review cultural competency in Australian and New Zealand paramedic education courses provides the focus of this paper. The paper emerged from a larger research project, which sought to explore the extent to which health professions include cultural competency in their curricula.
The purpose of designing a questionnaire was to review Australian and New Zealand paramedic education courses to discover the presence and coverage of cultural competency in the paramedic curriculum. To the best of our knowledge, no current research explores this theme. The absence of such research provided an opportunity to rectify this gap and contribute to the development of the paramedic curriculum, particularly with the proliferation of cultural competency courses in other health professions. This research makes an important contribution to the new academic discipline of paramedic research.
The methods used for designing a questionnaire utilised three statements and guidelines on research practice, in addition to a literature review that informed the design process. The research outcome is a paramedic specific questionnaire based on a carefully constructed design process which education researchers could use or adapt to their needs for exploring other curriculum topics.
Frank Archer BMedSci(Hons), MBBS, MEd, MPH, FRACGP, FIMC(RCSEd), FAFPHM, FASMF
Frank is currently the director of the Monash University Centre for Ambulance and Paramedic Studies. He was previously the State Ambulance Medical Director for Victoria in the Department of Human Services - a position he had held for the previous 20 years. He also has a concurrent appointment as one of the four Medical Directors for the Metropolitan Ambulance Service in Melbourne.
Frank's first contact with the ambulance service was when he was employed as an Ambulance Officer during his long vacations whilst a medical student. He presented his first paper at the First Seminar on the Management of Road Traffic Casualties conducted by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons in 1999. The title of his paper was, "Care Before Casualty - Current Shortcomings".
Following his graduation and hospital residencies, Frank combined clinical practice as a general practitioner with (initially) a four year period teaching anatomy to medical students at Monash University and later in a range of appointments within the Ambulance Service. Frank commenced a formal appointment as the "Ambulance Service Medical Officer" in 1976, combining responsibilities primarily for the development of the Mobile Intensive Care Ambulance program in Victoria, within both the Department of Human Services and the Metropolitan Ambulance Service, whilst based at the Ambulance Officers' Training Centre. These concurrent appointments continued until his appointment at Monash University in May 1999.
During these ambulance appointments, Frank has been a member of many teams which have led a series of innovations in ambulance policy, research and development, clinical practice education and operations, many of which have been benchmarks for interstate programs and have attracted international attention.
Frank has post graduate clinical fellowships in general practice, immediate medical care and public health medicine. He is also a member of a number of national and international committees in the area of prehospital care.
Caroline Spencer BA(Hons), PhD
Caroline's current research interests in culturally diverse communities have evolved from previous academic successes (BA Hons) in anthropology at LaTrobe University, Australia in 1996, and subsequent doctoral studies in anthropology at Monash University in 2000.
Caroline has over fifteen years experience as a community-based educator, in addition to her teaching role at Monash University Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice (DCEHPP) since 2000, and more recently with the Health Sciences Program at the university's Peninsula campus. Caroline is currently undertaking funded research in collaboration with Ambulance Services Victoria to identify cultural issues that may impact on paramedic care in acute health events. Research results are intended to inform the community and paramedic training, and to improve health outcomes for patients from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.
Caroline is a member of the Inclusive Practices Workplace Equity Committee at Monash University and a member of the Bayside Health Cultural Diversities Committee. She has presented her work at both national and international conferences.JEPHC PUBLICATIONS Education
Paramedic education and training on cultural diversity: conventions underpinning practiceGuest Editorial
A prehospital perspective of 'Cultural Competency in Health: A guide for policy, partnership and participation'. National Health and Medical Research Council, Commonwealth of Australia. 2005Book Reviews
Qualitative Data Analysis with NVivo'. Pat Bazeley. Sage Publications Limited; 2007Conference Reports
Diversity in Health 2005: it's everybody's business
Respecting Culture and Diversity: Innovations in Healthcare service delivery
GradCert (Health Informatics), MAppSc (Lib&InfoManagement) With over twenty years in the academic library environment and further graduate studies in the field of information management and medical informatics, Rhona has gained a broad-based knowledge of library and health information systems.
Rhona is a Research Assistant at Monash University Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, where she contributes to a variety of research and educational projects. In addition to this, Rhona is the Managing Editor for JEPHC, administrator and executive member of the Australian Prehospital and Emergency Health Research Forum, and Trials Search Co-ordinator for the Cochrane Collaboration Prehospital and Emergency Health Field.
Archer, Frank; Spencer, Caroline; and Macdonald, Rhona
"Designing a questionnaire to review cultural competency in Australian and New Zealand paramedic courses,"
Journal of Emergency Primary Health Care:
4, Article 2.
Available at: http://ro.ecu.edu.au/jephc/vol7/iss4/2