School of Medical and Health Sciences
Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (81872708 and 82073668 to LX. Tao)
Background: We aimed to examine the bidirectional associations between daytime napping duration and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: Using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study from 2011 to 2015, modified Poisson regression models were performed to explore the longitudinal associations of baseline napping duration with the occurrence and remission of MetS. Generalized estimating equation was conducted to explore the association between baseline MetS status with subsequent changes in daytime napping duration. Cross-lagged panel analysis was performed to further verify their bidirectional relationships. Results: During the four-year follow-up, among 5041 participants without MetS at baseline, extended naps were significantly associated with MetS occurrence, compared with non-napping. This association was only significant in individuals with adequate night-time sleep duration or good sleep quality of the 2898 participants with MetS at baseline. Excessive napping duration may be not favorable for MetS remission especially for adequate night-time sleepers. With respect to reverse associations, baseline MetS status significantly increased the napping duration during the subsequent follow-up period. Finally, there were significant bidirectional cross-lagged associations between napping duration and MetS severity score after adjusting for all covariates. Conclusions: Our study indicates bidirectional relationships exist between daytime napping duration and MetS. Interestingly, longer napping duration was detrimental to cardiometabolic health only in those with sufficient night-time sleep duration or good sleep quality.
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