The inter-tester reliability of the squeeze and bent-knee-fall-out tests in elite academy football players
Physical Therapy in Sport
School of Medical and Health Sciences
To evaluate the inter-tester reliability of two common tests for assessing hip and groin injuries, using a protocol closely reflecting normal clinical conditions.
Same-session, single-trial, inter-tester reliability study.
Elite European football academy.
Two testers and fifty-eight football players aged 14–21 years.
Main outcome measures
Inter-tester reliability of the squeeze (in approximately 45° hip flexion) and bent-knee-fall-out (BKFO) tests, evaluated with intraclass correlation coefficients (two-way mixed, single measure) and minimal detectable change.
Both tests demonstrated excellent inter-tester reliability. The intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87–0.95) for the squeeze test, 0.91 (95% CI: 0.67–0.96) for the BKFO test on the right side and 0.92 (95% CI 0.87–0.95) for BKFO on the left side. The minimal detectable changes were 7.21 mmHg for the squeeze test, 0.95 cm and 0.75 cm for BKFO (right) and BKFO (left) respectively.
The squeeze and the BKFO tests demonstrated excellent inter-tester reliability in elite academy football players, using a protocol reflective of normal clinical conditions.