Backpacker personal development, generalized self-efficacy, and self-esteem: Testing a structural model
Journal of Travel Research
School of Business and Law
Guided by self-determination theory (SDT), this study aims to advance the theoretical understanding of backpacker personal development (BPD) by examining its relationships with two important social-psychological constructs, that is, generalized self-efficacy (GSE) and self-esteem (SE). Using two samples from different cultural groups (Chinese backpackers, n=230; Western backpackers, n=242) and applying the partial least squares structural equation modeling, the study found that among Chinese backpackers, skill development positively influenced GSE while worldview changes negatively influenced SE. For Western backpackers, capability development and emotional adjustment positively influenced their GSE. The positive effects of GSE on SE were confirmed in both samples. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.