Exercise alters and β-alanine combined with exercise augments histidyl dipeptide levels and scavenges lipid peroxidation products in human skeletal muscle
Journal of Applied Physiology
American Physiological Society
School of Medical and Health Sciences
Funding information available at: https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00007.2018
Carnosine and anserine are dipeptides synthesized from histidine and β-alanine by carnosine synthase (ATPGD1). These dipeptides, present in high concentration in the skeletal muscle, form conjugates with lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxy trans-2-nonenal (HNE). Although skeletal muscle levels of these dipeptides could be elevated by feeding β-alanine, it is unclear how these dipeptides and their conjugates are affected by exercise training with or without β-alanine supplementation. We recruited 20 physically active men, who were allocated to either β-alanine or placebo-feeding group matched for peak oxygen consumption, lactate threshold, and maximal power. Participants completed 2 wk of a conditioning phase followed by 1 wk of exercise training, a single session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT), followed by 6 wk of HIIT. Analysis of muscle biopsies showed that the levels of carnosine and ATPGD1 expression were increased after CPET and decreased following a single session and 6 wk of HIIT. Expression of ATPGD1 and levels of carnosine were increased upon β-alanine-feeding after CPET, whereas ATPGD1 expression decreased following a single session of HIIT. The expression of fiber type markers myosin heavy chain I and IIa remained unchanged after CPET. Levels of carnosine, anserine, carnosine-HNE, carnosine-propanal, and carnosine-propanol were further increased after 9 wk of β-alanine supplementation and exercise training but remained unchanged in the placebo-fed group. These results suggest that carnosine levels and ATPGD1 expression fluctuates with different phases of training. Enhancing carnosine levels by β-alanine feeding could facilitate the detoxification of lipid peroxidation products in the human skeletal muscle. NEW & NOTEWORTHY: Carnosine synthase expression and carnosine levels are altered in the human skeletal muscle during different phases of training. During high-intensity interval training, β-alanine feeding promotes detoxification of lipid peroxidation products and increases anserine levels in the skeletal muscle.