Light-emitting Diode-Compatible Probes for Indirect Detection of Anions in CE
A range of compounds were evaluated as probes for the indirect detection of inorganic ions using CE and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as the light source. Emphasis was placed on examining probes likely to absorb strongly in the UV-Vis region near 350-430 nm as compounds, which absorb at longer wavelengths tend to be bulkier and adsorb onto the capillary wall. These probes should act as a replacement for the very effective but carcinogenic probe chromate. Two probes were identified and evaluated: p-nitrophenol and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid. The former showed the most potential with low-mobility anions, while the later had a moderate electrophoretic mobility and was more suitable for a wider mobility range of analytes. However, neither could match the efficiencies and LOD of chromate for the separation of the fast inorganic ions such as chloride, nitrate and sulphate. Nevertheless, application of the 4-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid system to the determination of oxalate in Bayer liquors showed excellent sensitivity and selectivity.