Measuring Ideal and Real Self-Concept on the Same Scale, Based on a Multifaceted, Hierarchical Model of Self-Concept
Community Services, Education and Social Sciences
Self-concept was conceptualized as composed of three first-order facets, each with three second-order facets, with ideal and real aspects: academic self-concept (capability, achievement, and confidence), social self-concept (same-sex peer, opposite-sex peer, and family), and self-concept presentation of self (personal confidence, physical, and honest/trustworthy). Data from a convenience sample of 400 university students were analyzed with the extended logistic model of Rasch. The 45 real items, together with 21 ideal items (66 items), fit the model and formed a scale with valid and reliable (r = .94) scores. The ideal items were all “easier” than their corresponding real items. This supported a multifaceted, hierarchical model of self-concept, with ideal and real aspects making an unequal contribution, as an ordered unidimensional latent trait.