BioMed Central Ltd.
Computing, Health and Science
School of Exercise, Biomedical & Health Science
Background The low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1) has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but its signalling has not been fully evaluated. There is good evidence that the cytoplasmic domain of LRP1 is involved in protein-protein interactions, important in the cell biology of LRP1. Results We carried out three yeast two-hybrid screens to identify proteins that interact with the cytoplasmic domain of LRP1. The screens included both conventional screens as well as a novel, split-ubiquitin-based screen in which an LRP1 construct was expressed and screened as a transmembrane protein. The split-ubiquitin screen was validated in a screen using full-length amyloid protein precursor (APP), which successfully identified FE65 and FE65L2, as well as novel interactors (Rab3a, Napg, and ubiquitin b). Using both a conventional screen as well as the split-ubiquitin screen, we identified NYGGF4 as a novel LRP1 interactor. The interaction between LRP1 and NYGGF4 was validated using two-hybrid assays, coprecipitation and colocalization in mammalian cells. Mutation analysis demonstrated a specific interaction of NYGGF4 with an NPXY motif that required an intact tyrosine residue. Interestingly, while we confirmed that other LRP1 interactors we identified, including JIP1B and EB-1, were also able to bind to APP, NYGGF4 was unique in that it showed specific binding with LRP1. Expression of NYGGF4 decreased significantly in patients with AD as compared to age-matched controls, and showed decreasing expression with AD disease progression. Examination of Nyggf4 expression in mice with different alleles of the human APOE4 gene showed significant differences in Nyggf4 expression. Conclusions These results implicate NYGGF4 as a novel and specific interactor of LRP1. Decreased expression of LRP1 and NYGGF4 over disease, evident with the presence of even moderate numbers of neuritic plaques, suggests that LRP1-NYGGF4 is a system altered early in disease. Genetic and functional studies have implicated both LRP1 and NYGGF4 in obesity and cardiovascular disease and the physical association of these proteins may reflect a common mechanism. This is particularly interesting in light of the dual role of ApoE in both cardiovascular risk and AD. The results support further studies on the functional relationship between NYGGF4 and LRP1.
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