Nature Publishing Group
Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer’s disease Research & Care / School of Medical Sciences
The autosomal dominant form of Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) is far less prevalent than late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), but enables well-informed prospective studies, since symptom onset is near certain and age of onset is predictable. Our aim was to discover plasma proteins associated with early AD pathology by investigating plasma protein changes at the asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of ADAD. Eighty-one proteins were compared across asymptomatic mutation carriers (aMC, n = 15), symptomatic mutation carriers (sMC, n = 8) and related noncarriers (NC, n = 12). Proteins were also tested for associations with cognitive measures, brain amyloid deposition and glucose metabolism. Fewer changes were observed at the asymptomatic than symptomatic stage with seven and 16 proteins altered significantly in aMC and sMC, respectively. This included complement components C3, C5, C6, apolipoproteins A-I, A-IV, C-I and M, histidine-rich glycoprotein, heparin cofactor II and attractin, which are involved in inflammation, lipid metabolism and vascular health. Proteins involved in lipid metabolism differed only at the symptomatic stage, whereas changes in inflammation and vascular health were evident at asymptomatic and symptomatic stages. Due to increasing evidence supporting the usefulness of ADAD as a model for LOAD, these proteins warrant further investigation into their potential association with early stages of LOAD.
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