Oxygen transfer by multiple vertical plunging jets in tandem

Document Type

Journal Article


American Society of Civil Engineers


School of Engineering




Chipongo, K., & Khiadani, M. (2016). Oxygen transfer by multiple vertical plunging jets in tandem. Journal of Environmental Engineering. 143(1), 1 - 9. Original article available here


Investigations were conducted of oxygen transfer by multiple jets in tandem configuration discharging into water flowing in a rectangular channel based on the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient, KLa20" style="position: relative;" tabindex="0" id="MathJax-Element-1-Frame">KLa20. Results from this study show that water depth in the receiving channel, number of jets, fall height, and jet velocity influence oxygen transfer. Consistent with previous research, an optimum depth was observed corresponding to maximum oxygen transfer, which deviated from estimations using the equation for hydraulic structures due to the low velocities of water in the channel. Since increasing the number of jets increases KLa20" style="position: relative;" tabindex="0" id="MathJax-Element-2-Frame">KLa20, but not essentially standard oxygen transfer efficiency (SOTE) for the same jet power per unit volume (P/V" style="position: relative;" tabindex="0" id="MathJax-Element-3-Frame">P/V), the authors introduced the concept of an optimum P/V" style="position: relative;" tabindex="0" id="MathJax-Element-4-Frame">P/V. This optimum was constant for any number of jets investigated, and at this value, both KLa20" style="position: relative;" tabindex="0" id="MathJax-Element-5-Frame">KLa20 and SOTE increase with increasing number of jets. Ultimately, a relationship is proposed for estimating KLa20" style="position: relative;" tabindex="0" id="MathJax-Element-6-Frame">KLa20 for multiple plunging jets in tandem with modifications for practical application to spatially varied flow in gutters.