Strong enhancement on dye photocatalytic degradation by ball-milled TiO2: A study of cationic and anionic dyes

Document Type

Journal Article


Chinese Society of Metals

Place of Publication



School of Engineering


Originally published as: Jia, Z., La, L. B. T., Zhang, W. C., Liang, S. X., Jiang, B., Xie, S. K., ... & Zhang, L. C. (2017). Strong enhancement on dye photocatalytic degradation by ball-milled TiO 2: A study of cationic and anionic dyes. Journal of Materials Science & Technology. 33(8), 856-863. Available here.


TiO2 particles with desirable properties were produced by undergoing specific durations of ball milling. Characterizations of the TiO2 particles before and after ball milling were investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), particle size analysis, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The equilibrium adsorption data were well fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Compared to the as-received TiO2 (mean particle size d50 = 0.78 μm, specific surface area = 88.17 m2 g−1, pore volume = 0.41 cm3 g−1), the 60 min ball-milled TiO2 (d50 = 0.55 μm, specific surface area = 99.48 m2 g−1, pore volume = 0.48 cm3 g−1) enhanced the adsorption quantity of congo red and methylene blue from 10.4 mg g−1 to 13.6 mg g−1, and from 17.0 mg g−1 to 22.2 mg g−1, respectively; and also improved the kinetic rates from k = 0.1325 to 0.2193, and k = 0.0944 to 0.1553, respectively. Dye adsorption and degradation efficiency of congo red was enhanced in acidic pH range (2–5.14), and methylene blue was enhanced in alkaline pH range (7.58–12).