Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School of Marketing, Tourism and Leisure


Business and Law

First Advisor

Dr Katherine Mizerski


Do Australian and Japanese university students feel that social marketing is encroaching on their freedoms or empowering them? For example, how do they react to social marketing messages such as ‘Don’t Drink and Drive’ and ‘Reduce, Reuse, Recycle’? Social marketing activities include advocating for environmental change, laws, and regulations as well as making recommendations to individuals to change behaviours to promote the good of society; however, some people believe that such activities are attempts to control people, infringing upon their individual freedom. While behavioural models and theories have recognised the influence of an individual’s predisposition towards a recommended behaviour (such as quitting smoking), at present, there has been little attention paid to an individual’s predisposition towards the social change directives themselves, the social marketing activities/techniques in general; the present study is calling this predisposition the individual’s ‘readiness to accept’ social marketing activities. Hence, this study investigated the influence of values relating to the freedom of the individual on ‘readiness to accept government-sponsored social marketing activities’ in Australian and Japanese university students aged between 18 and 23 years.


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