School or Research Centre
School of Arts and Humanities
Edith Cowan University
Combined data of three studies (N=164; 121 and 236 respectively) that investigated whether the voluntariness of apologies influenced recipients’ perception of the sincerity of apologies; acceptance of apologies; willingness to forgive offenders; and intended retributive behavior towards offenders.
Anonymous online survey
Research Activity Description
An exploratory study consisting of three experiments that investigated whether the voluntariness of apologies influenced recipients’ perception of the sincerity of apologies; acceptance of apologies; willingness to forgive offenders; and intended retributive behavior towards offenders. Manipulated the voluntariness of apologies whilst at the same time considering the influence of offender (age, gender, ethnicity, and prior wrongful behavior) and offence (seriousness) characteristics in three studies (N=164; 121 and 236 respectively). Participants adopting the role of a hypothetical victim received either a voluntary or ordered apology. Voluntary apologies had a significantly more positive impact than ordered apologies on acceptance and perception of sincerity in all the studies, and forgiveness in two of the studies, but did not significantly change participants’ retributive behavior in any study...
Start of data collection time period
End of data collection time period
Embedded in data set
Excel and PDF
Three Excel files of 28, 6 and 45 KB each. Four PDF files of 66, 1331, 236, and 233 KB each.
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Allan, A., De Mott, J., Larkins, I., Turnbull, L., Warwick, T., Willett, L., & Allan, M. M. (2021). The impact of voluntariness of apologies on victims’ responses in restorative justice: Findings of a quantitative study [dataset]. Edith Cowan University. http://dx.doi.org/10.25958/pxg3-t209
ALLAN A_Ethnicity.csv (67 kB)
Study_1_Age_Gender_Study_Appendices_Alfred ALLAN(1)_Redacted.pdf (1539 kB)
Study_2_Offence_History_Seriousness_Study_App_Alfred ALLAN(1).pdf (235 kB)
Study_3_Culture_Study_Appendices_Alfred ALLAN(1).pdf (232 kB)
201124_Contextual_material_Alfred ALLAN(1).pdf (65 kB)