Measuring Attitudes and Behaviors to Studying and Learning for University Students: A Rasch Measurement Model Analysis

Document Type

Journal Article


Jam Press


Faculty of Community Services, Education and Social Sciences


School of Education




Waugh, R. F. (2003). Measuring attitudes and behaviors to studying and learning for university students: a Rasch measurement model analysis. Journal of Applied Measurement, 4(2), 164-180. Available here.


A Studying and Learning Scale was created using a model of Motivation (sets of ordered stem-items based on Striving for Excellence, Desire to Learn and Personal Incentives), with each item answered from three self-reported perspectives (an Ideal Self-view, a Capability Self-view, and a Studying and Learning Self-view). The response categories were the number of subjects studied. The stem-item sample was 23, each answered in three aspects, so each stem-item had three 'difficulties', making an effective item sample of 69. The person convenience sample was 372 students in education at an Australian university. The 69 items fit a Rasch measurement model and formed a scale in which the 'difficulties' of the items were ordered from 'easy' to 'hard' and the student measures of Studying and Learning were ordered from 'low' to 'high'. The person separation reliability was high at 0.94. The response categories were answered consistently and logically and the results supported many (but not all) of the conceptually ordered-by-difficulty item patterns. Students found it 'easy' to form a high view of How they would like to be, much 'harder' to form a high view of What they think they are capable of doing and even 'harder' to perform, at a high level, their Studying and Learning behavior for all stem-items, in accordance with the model.