Fixed and flexible framing: Literacy events across cultures

Document Type

Book Chapter


Faculty of Community Services, Education and Social Sciences


School of Communications and Arts / Centre for Research in Entertainment, Arts,Technology, Education and Communications




Malcolm, I. (2002). Fixed and flexible framing: Literacy events across cultures. In: Barron, C., Bruce, N., & Nunan, C. (eds) Knowledge and discourse: towards an ecology of language. Taylor & Francis: London, UK.


This project resulted in the publication of a report entitled Worlds Apart, in which it was shown that there were vast differences separating local and overseas students in their conceptions of crucial communicative events taking place in the university, and vast differences also separating the official self­ perception of the university from the actual perceptions of the students who were enrolled in it (Malcolm and McGregor 1995). The report resulted in the commissioning of a staff development programme to be made available through the computer network to alert staff to some of the things they need to be aware of with respect to cultural differences affecting the expectations of overseas students in university settings (Rochecouste 1996).