Mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production alters oxygen consumption in an oxygen-concentration-dependent manner
Faculty of Computing, Health and Science
School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Science
Metabolic responses of mammalian cells toward declining oxygen concentration are generally thought to occur when oxygen limits mitochondrial ATP production. However, at oxygen concentrations markedly above those limiting to mitochondria, several mammalian cell types display reduced rates of oxygen consumption without energy stress or compensatory increases in glycolytic ATP production. We used mammalian Jurkat T cells as a model system to identify mechanisms responsible for these changes in metabolic rate. Oxygen consumption was 31% greater at high oxygen (150–200 μM) compared to low oxygen (5–10 μM). Hydrogen peroxide was implicated in the response as catalase prevented the increase in oxygen consumption normally associated with high oxygen. Cell-derived hydrogen peroxide, predominately from the mitochondria, was elevated with high oxygen. Oxygen consumption related to intracellular calcium turnover was shown, through EDTA chelation and dantrolene antagonism of the ryanodine receptor, to account for 70% of the response. Oligomycin inhibition of oxygen consumption indicated that mitochondrial proton leak was also sensitive to changes in oxygen concentration. Our results point toward a mechanism in which changes in oxygen concentration influence the rate of hydrogen peroxide production by mitochondria, which, in turn, alters cellular ATP use associated with intracellular calcium turnover and energy wastage through mitochondrial proton leak.