Information Operations Matters: Best practices

Document Type



Potomac Books, Inc


Faculty of Computing, Health and Science


School of Computer and Information Science / Security Research Centre (secAU)




Armistead, L. (2010). Information Operations Matters: Best practices. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books, Inc. Available here


In 1998 the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) released the first of a series of seminal policies on information operations (IO). Titled Joint Publication 3-13, it laid out for the first time in an unclassified format how the U.S. military forces could utilize this particular element of power. As a relatively newly defined activity, this publication proposed to revolutionize the manner in which warfare, diplomacy, business, and a number of other areas are conducted. However, this transformation in the U.S. government with regard to IO has not occurred over the last decade, and a significant gap exists in the capability of the federal bureaucracy to support operations in this arena. While strategic policy and doctrine have been developed and promulgated, primarily by the DOD, the actual conduct of IO activities and campaigns across the United States are normally performed at a much more tactical level. This gap between theory and reality exists because the interagency organizations are often unwilling or unable to make the transformational changes that are needed to best utilize information as an element of power. In this book, the author has developed definitions and models that articulate why this gap exists, as well as details specific strategies for utilizing IO in a manner that best optimizes its inherent capabilities.