Document Type



Edith Cowan University

Place of Publication

Perth, Western Australia


Smith, C. (1996). Women and leadership working paper series: Paper no. 9: The dual-career phenomenon: Employer awareness and responses. Perth, Australia: Edith Cowan University.


Over the past thirty years, Western industrialised nations have witnessed major changes in their labour force characteristics. Of particular significance has been the steady increase of women in the paid workforce. Equal employment opportunity legislation, higher educational achievements and increasing numbers of female role models have fuelled women's career possibilities and aspirations. Consequently, growing numbers of women are pursuing longer-term careers, often through the ranks of management. A career implies a longer term developmental occupation or profession, with a sequence of connections and networks over time, although this does not preclude lateral or downward moves or temporary withdrawals, in response to changed organisational and personal circumstances.