Bunkum or Bhun Khun? The role of culture in virtual education

Document Type

Conference Proceeding


International Business Information Management Association

Place of Publication

New York, United States of America


School of Management Information Systems




Burn, J.M., & Thongprasert, N. (2004). Bunkum or Bhun Khun? The role of culture in virtual education. In the Proceedings of the 2004 International Business Information Management Conference: Information Technology and Organizations in the 21st Century: Challenges and Solutions. (pp 85 - 94) Amman, Jordan.


This study was designed to examine the critical success factors for implementing Virtual Education Delivery (VED) in Thailand, and to identify ways to facilitate such adoption and lead to effective outcomes. The study incorporated an analysis of three specific factors related to Thai culture: high power distance "Bhun Khun ", uncertainty avoidance "Kreng Jai" and, collectivism " Kam Lang Jai". This paper reviews the development of the research model, describes the conceptual underpinning of the cultural model and presents the findings of the study. The findings have implications for the transportability of online education and specifically for the use of traditional Western. developed concepts in non-western. cultures.

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