Document Type



Edith Cowan University

Place of Publication

Perth, Western Australia


Faculty of Science, Technology and Engineering


Australian Institute of Security and Applied Technology


Cross, J.M. (1997). Review of personal identification systems. Perth, Western Australia: Edith Cowan University.


The growth of the use of biometric personal identification systems has been relatively steady over the last 20 years. The expected biometric revolution which was forecast since the mid 1970's has not yet occurred. The main factor for lower than expected growth has been the cost and user acceptance of the systems. During the last few years, however, a new generation of more reliable, less expensive and better designed biometric devices have come onto the market. This combined with the anticipated expansion of new reliable, user friendly inexpensive systems provides a signal that the revolution is about to begin. This paper provides a glimpse into the future for personal identification systems and focuses on research directions, emerging applications and significant issues of the future.