Comparison in muscle damage between maximal voluntary and electrically evoked isometric contractions of the elbow flexors

Document Type

Journal Article




Dr. P E di Prampero (Editor-in-Chief)


Faculty of Computing, Health and Science


School of Exercise and Health Sciences / Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research




Jubeau, M. , Muthalib, M. , Millet, G. , Maffiuletti, N., & Nosaka, K. (2011). Comparison in muscle damage between maximal voluntary and electrically evoked isometric contractions of the elbow flexors. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(2), 429-438. Available here


Muscle–tendon moment arm magnitudes are essential variables for accurately calculating muscle forces from joint moments. Their measurement requires specialist knowledge and expensive resources. Research has shown that the patellar tendon moment arm length is related to leg anthropometry in children. Here, we asked whether the Achilles tendon moment arm (MAAT) can be accurately predicted in pre-pubescent children from surface anthropometry. Age, standing height, mass, foot length, inter-malleolar ankle width, antero-posterior ankle depth, tibial length, lower leg circumference, and distances from the calcaneus to the distal head of the 1st metatarsal and medial malleolus were determined in 49 pre-pubescent children. MAAT was calculated at three different ankle positions (neutral, 10° plantarflexion, and 10° dorsiflexion) by differentiating tendon excursion, measured via ultrasonography, with respect to ankle angle change using seven different differentiation techniques. Backwards stepwise regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of MAAT. When all variables were included, the regression analysis accounted for a maximum of 49% of MAAT variance at the neutral ankle angle when a third-order polynomial was used to differentiate tendon excursion with respect to ankle angle. For this condition, foot length and the distance between calcaneus and 1st metatarsal were the only significant predictors, accounting for 47% of the variance (p<0.05). The absolute error associated with this regression model was 3.8±4.4 mm, which would result in significant error (mean=14.5%) when estimating muscle forces from joint moments. We conclude that MAAT cannot be accurately predicted from anthropometric measures in children



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