Anthony S. Gunnell, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Daniel A. Galvao, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Vicki J. Graham, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Caroline McIntyre, Edith Cowan University
Robert U. Newton, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science
School of Exercise and Health Sciences / ECU Health and Wellness Institute
Background:Lifestyle factors have been implicated in ischaemic heart disease (IHD) development however a limited number of longitudinal studies report results stratified by cardio-protective medication use.Purpose:This study investigated the influence of self-reported lifestyle factors on hospitalisation for IHD, stratified by blood pressure and/or lipid-lowering therapy.Methods:A population-based cohort of 14,890 participants aged 45+ years and IHD-free was identified from the Western Australian Health and wellbeing Surveillance System (2004 to 2010 inclusive), and linked with hospital administrative data. Adjusted hazard ratios for future IHD-hospitalisation were estimated using Cox regression.Results:Current smokers remained at higher risk for IHD-hospitalisation (adjusted HR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.22-2.03) after adjustment for medication use, as did those considered overweight (BMI=25-29 kg/m2; adjusted HR=1.28; 95% CI: 1.04-1.57) or obese (BMI of ≥30kg/m2; adjusted HR=1.31; 95% CI: 1.03-1.66). Weekly leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) of 150 minutes or more and daily intake of 3 or more fruit/vegetable servings reduced risk by 21% (95% CI: 0.64-0.97) and 26% (95% CI: 0.58-0.96) respectively. Benefits of LTPA appeared greatest in those on blood pressure lowering medication (adjusted HR=0.50; 95% CI: 0.31-0.82 [for LTPA=150 mins]). IHD risk in smokers was most pronounced in those taking neither medication (adjusted HR=2.00; 95% CI: 1.41-2.83).Conclusion:This study confirms the contribution of previously reported lifestyle factors towards IHD hospitalisation, even after adjustment for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medication use. Medication stratified results suggest that IHD risks related to LTPA and smoking may differ according to medication use.
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