Longitudinal Analysis of Serum Copper and Ceruloplasmin in Alzheimer's Disease

Document Type

Journal Article


IOS Press


Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science


School of Medical Sciences / Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer's Disease Research and Care




Rembach, A., Doecke, J., Roberts, B., Watt, A., Faux, N., Volitakis, I., Pertile, K., Rumble, R., Trounson, B., Fowler, C., Wilson, W., Ellis, K., Martins, R. N., Rowe, C., Villemagne, V., Ames, D., Masters, C., & Bush, A. (2013). Longitudinal analysis of serum copper and ceruloplasmin in Alzheimer's Disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 34, 171-182. Available here


Background: Several studies have reported that peripheral levels of copper and ceruloplasmin (CP) can differentiate patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) from non-AD cases. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of serum copper, CP, and non-CP copper levels in a large cohort of AD subjects. Methods: Serum copper and CP concentrations were measured at baseline and at 18-months in participants from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted using both univariate and multivariate testing adjusting for age, gender, total protein, and ApoE 4 genotype status. Results: There was no significant difference in levels of serum copper or CP between the AD and healthy control groups,however, we identified a near-significant decrease in non-CP copper in the mild cognitive impairment and AD groups at baseline (p = 0.02) that was significant at 18-months (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Our results suggest that there may be decreased non-CP copper levels in mild cognitive impairment and AD, which is consistent with diminished copper-dependent biochemical activities described in AD.