Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal


Taylor & Francis


Centre for People, Place and Planet




This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND PROJECT APPRAISAL on 11/09/2022, available online:

Morrison-Saunders, A., Arts, J., Pope, J., Bond, A., & Retief, F. (2023). Distilling best practice principles for public participation in impact assessment follow-up. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 41(1), 48-58.


Building upon principles for public engagement and for impact assessment (IA) follow-up, this paper distils best practice principles specific to public participation in IA follow-up. Literature review, followed by a simple survey distributed to IA follow-up and/or public engagement practitioners, helped identify key principles and related published sources. Twelve principles for public participation in IA follow-up are presented, which relate to (1) mandatory public reporting, (2) ease of access to published material, (3) full transparency, (4) clarity about the IA follow-up process, (5) input to decision-making, (6) continuous access to IA follow-up activities and feedback, (7) independent verification, (8) two-way communication, (9) partnerships, (10) Indigenous inclusion, (11) participatory monitoring, and (12) involvement in adaptive management. They form a ladder of public engagement; the initial principles pertain mainly to information provision, with increasing levels of participation and legitimacy inherent in the latter principles. The principles are intended to provide a foundation for practitioners and community members involved in IA follow-up to enhance practice at all stages of the development life cycle, helping to achieve sustainable development.