Hydrogen storage in Majiagou carbonate reservoir in China: Geochemical modelling on carbonate dissolution and hydrogen loss
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
School of Engineering
Underground hydrogen storage (UHS) appears to be promising means for large-scale hydrogen storage. Carbonate reservoirs can play an important role in hydrogen storage in particular in Western China and Middle East region. However, little work has been done to address the potential risks and uncertainties associated with carbonate dissolution and hydrogen loss as a result of hydrogen-brine-carbonate geochemical reactions. We thus performed geochemical modelling to assess the potential of UHS in Majiagou carbonate formation, China. Kinetic models of the dissolution/precipitation of calcite, dolomite and quartz were developed to characterize hydrogen loss, mineral dissolution and water chemistry variations up to 500 years. The results show that the percentage of hydrogen loss due to fluid-rock interactions is only 6.6% for the first year, but could increase to 81.1% at the end of 500 years during UHS in Majiagou formation, indicating that carbonate reservoirs is suitable for hydrogen seasonal storage but may not be a good candidate for long-term storage. Meanwhile, totally 0.0646% of calcite would dissolve into formation brine over 500 years, bringing potential risks on caprock and wellbore stability and formation integrity. Besides, we observed a considerable amount of methane generated along with H2-brine-carbonate interactions. Our works provide a framework to assess the hydrogen storage capacity of carbonate reservoirs using geochemical modelling, and can be also applied to other types of storage deposits.