School of Medical and Health Sciences
National Nature Science Foundation of China [NSFC 81872682]
Background: Immunoglobulin G (IgG) N-glycans have been shown to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its risk factors. However, whether these associations reflect causal effects remain unclear. Furthermore, the associations of IgG N-glycans and inflammation are not fully understood. Methods: We examined the causal associations of IgG N-glycans with inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen) and T2D using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis in East Asian and European populations. Genetic variants from IgG N-glycan quantitative trait loci (QTL) data were used as instrumental variables. Two-sample MR was conducted for IgG N-glycans with inflammation (75,391 and 18,348 participants of CRP and fibrinogen in the East Asian population, 204,402 participants of CRP in the European population) and T2D risk (77,418 cases and 356,122 controls of East Asian ancestry, 81,412 cases and 370,832 controls of European ancestry). Results: After correcting for multiple testing, in the East Asian population, genetically determined IgG N-glycans were associated with a higher risk of T2D, the odds ratios (ORs) were 1.009 for T2D per 1- standard deviation (SD) higher GP5, 95 % CI = 1.003–1.015; P = 0.0019; and 1.013 for T2D per 1-SD higher GP13, 95 % CI = 1.006–1.021; P = 0.0005. In the European population, genetically determined decreased GP9 was associated with T2D (OR = 0.899 per 1-SD lower GP9, 95 % CI: 0.845 – 0.957). In addition, there was suggestive evidence that genetically determined IgG N-glycans were associated with CRP in both East Asian and European populations after correcting for multiple testing, but no associations were found between IgG N-glycans and fibrinogen. There was limited evidence of heterogeneity and pleiotropy bias. Conclusions: Our results provided novel genetic evidence that IgG N-glycans are causally associated with T2D.
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