False information as a threat to modern society: A systematic review of false information, its impact on society, and current remedies
Journal of Information Warfare
School of Science
False information and by extension misinformation, disinformation and fake news are an ever-growing concern to modern democratic societies, which value the freedom of information alongside the right of the individual to express his or her opinions freely. This paper focuses on misinformation, with the aim to provide a collation of current research on the topic and a discussion of future research directions. It argues that a major current issue is the lack of reliable verified datasets and, by extension, the algorithmic learning models based on them. Through the understanding of different variations of false information, it has been possible to see the impact this absence is currently having on society. At the core is a focus on misinformation. A deeper investigation shows that artificial intelligence-based techniques are widely used to counter the effects and confusion caused by misinformation. Potential consequences of misinformation are being highlighted to allow insight into potential issues that may arise from this form of false information to highlight the severity of the issue and to demonstrate the growing need for reliable detection and prevention systems.