Effect of ozonation-based disinfection methods on the removal of antibiotic resistant bacteria and resistance genes (ARB/ARGs) in water and wastewater treatment: a systematic review
Science of The Total Environment
School of Engineering
Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences (99000058)
Antibiotic resistance is considered a universal health threat of the 21st century which its distribution and even development are mainly mediated by water-based media. Disinfection processes with the conventional methods are still the most promising options to combat such crises in aqueous matrices especially wastewater. Knowing that the extent of effectiveness and quality of disinfection is of great importance, this paper aimed to systematically review and discuss ozonation (as one of the main disinfectants with large scale application) effect on removing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from aqueous solutions, for which no study has been reported. For this, a comprehensive literature survey was performed within the international databases using appropriate keywords which yielded several studies involving different aspects and the effectiveness extent of ozonation on ARB & ARGs. The results showed that no definite conclusion could be drawn about the superiority of ozone alone or in a hybrid form. Mechanism of action was carefully evaluated and discussed although it is still poorly understood. Evaluation of the studies from denaturation and repairment perspectives showed that regrowth cannot be avoided after ozonation, especially for some ARB & ARGs variants. In addition, the comparison of the effectiveness on ARB & ARGs showed that ozonation is more effective for resistant bacteria than their respective genes. The degradation efficiency was found to be mainly influenced by operational parameters of CT (i.e. ozone dose & contact time), solids, alkalinity, pH, and type of pathogens and genes. Moreover, the correlation between ARB & ARGs removal and stressors (such as antibiotic residuals, heavy metals, aromatic matters, microcystins, opportunistic pathogens, etc.) has been reviewed to give the optimal references for further in-depth studies. The future perspectives have also been reported.