Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems: Theory and Applications








School of Engineering / School of Science




Open Access CAUL / ECU-DSTG Industry PhD scholarship


Moniruzzaman, M. D., Rassau, A., Chai, D., & Islam, S. M. S. (2022). High latency unmanned ground vehicle teleoperation enhancement by presentation of estimated future through video transformation. Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems, 106, Article 48.


Long-distance, high latency teleoperation tasks are difficult, highly stressful for teleoperators, and prone to over-corrections, which can lead to loss of control. At higher latencies, or when teleoperating at higher vehicle speed, the situation becomes progressively worse. To explore potential solutions, this research work investigates two 2D visual feedback-based assistive interfaces (sliding-only and sliding-and-zooming windows) that apply simple but effective video transformations to enhance teleoperation. A teleoperation simulator that can replicate teleoperation scenarios affected by high and adjustable latency has been developed to explore the effectiveness of the proposed assistive interfaces. Three image comparison metrics have been used to fine-tune and optimise the proposed interfaces. An operator survey was conducted to evaluate and compare performance with and without the assistance. The survey has shown that a 900ms latency increases task completion time by up to 205% for an on-road and 147 % for an off-road driving track. Further, the overcorrection-induced oscillations increase by up to 718 % with this level of latency. The survey has shown the sliding-only video transformation reduces the task completion time by up to 25.53 %, and the sliding-and-zooming transformation reduces the task completion time by up to 21.82 %. The sliding-only interface reduces the oscillation count by up to 66.28 %, and the sliding-and-zooming interface reduces it by up to 75.58 %. The qualitative feedback from the participants also shows that both types of assistive interfaces offer better visual situational awareness, comfort, and controllability, and significantly reduce the impact of latency and intermittency on the teleoperation task.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.