Long-term effect of submicronic particulate matter (PM1) and intermodal particulate matter (PM1-2.5) on incident dyslipidemia in China: A nationwide 5-year cohort study
School of Medical and Health Sciences / Centre for Precision Health
National Natural Science Foundation of China Nature Science Foundation of Capital Medical University Beijing Municipal Training Project of Excellent Talents
Background: There is insufficient evidence of associations between incident dyslipidemia with PM1 (submicronic particulate matter) and PM1-2.5 (intermodal particulate matter) in the middle-aged and elderly. We aimed to determine the long-term effects of PM1 and PM1-2.5 on incident dyslipidemia respectively. Methods: We studied 6976 individuals aged ≥ 45 from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study from 2013 to 2018. The concentrations of particular matter (PM) for every individual's address were evaluated using a satellite-based spatiotemporal model. Dyslipidemia was evaluated by self-reported. The generalized linear mixed model was applied to quantify the correlations between PM and incident dyslipidemia. Results: After a 5-year follow-up, 333 (4.77%) participants developed dyslipidemia. Per 10 μg/m³ uptick in four-year average concentrations of PMs (PM1 and PM1-2.5) corresponded to 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01–1.23)] and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.06–1.43) fold risks of incident dyslipidemia. Nonlinear exposure-response curves were observed between PM and incident dyslipidemia. The effect size of PM1 on incident dyslipidemia was slightly higher in males [1.14 (95% CI: 0.98–1.32) vs. 1.04 (95% CI: 0.89–1.21)], the elderly [1.23 (95% CI: 1.04–1.45) vs. 1.03 (95% CI: 0.91–1.17)], people with less than primary school education [1.12 (95% CI: 0.94–1.33) vs. 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94–1.23)], and solid cooking fuel users [1.17 (95% CI: 1.00–1.36) vs. 1.06 (95% CI: 0.93–1.21)], however, the difference was not statistically significant (Z = −0.82, P = 0.413; Z = −1.66, P = 0.097; Z = 0.32, P = 0.752; Z = −0.89, P = 0.372). Conclusions: Long-term exposure to PM1 and PM1-2.5 were linked with an increased morbidity of dyslipidemia in the middle-aged and elderly population. Males, the elderly, and solid cooking fuel users had higher risk. Further studies would be warranted to establish an accurate reference value of PM to mitigate growing dyslipidemia.
Hu, M., Wei, J., Hu, Y., Guo, X., Li, Z., Liu, Y., . . . Liu, X. (2023). Long-term effect of submicronic particulate matter (PM1) and intermodal particulate matter (PM1-2.5) on incident dyslipidemia in China: A nationwide 5-year cohort study. Environmental Research, 217, article 114860. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.114860