Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

PubMed ID





Nutrition and Health Innovation Research Institute / School of Medical and Health Sciences




National Health and Medical Research Council Early Career Fellowship and Senior Research Fellowship / Danish Cancer Society, Denmark / Australian Government Research Training Program Stipend Scholarship / National Heart Foundation Future Leader Fellowship (ID: 102817)

Grant Number

NHMRC Numbers : APP1159914, APP1116973


Parmenter, B. H., Dalgaard, F., Murray, K., Marquis-Gravel, G., Cassidy, A., Bondonno, C. P., ... & Bondonno, N. P. (2023). Intake of dietary flavonoids and incidence of ischemic heart disease in the Danish diet, cancer, and health cohort. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77, 270-277.



Few studies have investigated the association between dietary flavonoid intake, including all major subclasses, and the long-term risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined whether dietary flavonoid intake associated with IHD incidence, assessing the possible modifying role of sex and smoking, in participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health study.


In a cohort study design, 54,496 adults (46.8 % male), aged 50 – 64 years, without a history of IHD, were followed for up to 23 years. Habitual dietary flavonoid intake was estimated from food frequency questionnaires using Phenol-Explorer. Incident cases of IHD were identified within Danish nationwide health registries. Restricted cubic splines in Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine associations between flavonoid intake and IHD risk.


During follow-up, 5560 IHD events were recorded. No overall association was seen between total flavonoid intake, nor any subclass, and IHD, following adjustment for demographics, lifestyle, and dietary confounders. Stratified by sex and smoking status, higher intakes of specific subclasses associated with lower IHD risk among ever-smokers [Q5 vs. Q1 flavonols HR (95 % CI): 0.90 (0.82, 0.99); flavanol oligo+polymers: 0.88 (0.80, 0.97)], but not among never-smokers, nor either sex specifically.


While we did not find clear evidence that higher habitual dietary flavonoid intake was associated with lower IHD risk, these results do not exclude the possibility that certain subclasses may have a protective role in prevention of IHD among population sub-groups; this was evident among smokers, who are at a higher risk of atherosclerosis.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.