Evaluation and utility of the King-Devick with integrated eye tracking as a diagnostic tool for sport-related concussion
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
School of Medical and Health Sciences / Nutrition and Health Innovation Research Institute
Background: Eye-tracking technology for detecting eye movements has been gaining increasing attention as a possible assessment and monitoring tool for sport-related concussion (SRC). Purpose: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid number-naming task with eye tracking, the King-Devick Eye Tracking (K-D ET) assessment, in identifying SRC. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: One female and 1 male team of United States collegiate rugby-15 players competing during the 2018 season were recruited. Variables assessed were total saccades, saccade velocity, total fixations, fixation duration, fixation polyarea, and test duration. A generalized estimating equation was used to examine group (concussion vs nonconcussion), time (baseline vs postinjury/postseason), and sex-based differences for each outcome measure. In addition, the different components of diagnostic accuracy of the K-D ET were calculated. Results: Baseline K-D ET assessment for 49 participants (25 male, 24 female) were assessed at the beginning of the season, with 28 participants who did not sustain a head injury during the season completing the postseason assessments and 6 participants completing a postinjury (suspected concussion) assessment. Significant differences were observed between concussed and nonconcussed groups for total saccades (P = .024), fixation duration (P = .007), and fixation polyarea (P = .030), with differences from baseline to follow-up observed for saccade velocity (P = .018) in both groups. Sex-based differences were noted for total fixations (P = .041), fixation polyarea (P = .036), and completion time (P = .035). No significant Group × Time interactions were noted. The K-D ET test duration indicated high specificity (0.86) but not high sensitivity (0.40). No other variables reported high sensitivity or specificity. Conclusion: Other than completion time of the K-D ET test, no K-D ET oculomotor parameter was highly sensitive or specific in the diagnosis of concussion in this study.
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Hecimovich, M., Murphy, M., Chivers, P., & Stock, P. (2022). Evaluation and utility of the King-Devick with integrated eye tracking as a diagnostic tool for sport-related concussion. Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine, 10(12), Article 23259671221142255. https://doi.org/10.1177/23259671221142255