International Journal of Molecular Sciences
School of Science
Proteomics offers one of the best approaches for the functional analysis of the genome, generating detailed information that can be integrated with that obtained by other classic and omics approaches. It, thus, provides deep knowledge and an understanding of diverse proteoforms and different plant processes. Several different generations of proteomic platforms have appeared in the past 25 years. They have been exploited for describing protein profiles, post-translational modifications, and subcellular localization. Despite recent advancements, more emphasis needs to be given to the protein sample preparation protocols, especially for cases with very low abundance, hydrophobicity, and a large molecular weight. The amalgamation of diverse mass-spectrometry techniques complemented with genome-sequence data and modern bioinformatic analysis offers a powerful tool to identify and characterize novel proteins/proteoforms in spatial and temporal resolution and under different environmental conditions. Furthermore, post-translational modifications, subcellular localization, and protein–protein interactions provide deep insight into protein molecular functions. Current proteomic techniques have gained new insights into plant molecular responses to various stresses.
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