Recent advances in the development of enzymatic paper-based microfluidic biosensors
Biosensors and Bioelectronics
School of Engineering
Using microfluidic paper-based analytical devices has attracted considerable attention in recent years. This is mainly due to their low cost, availability, portability, simple design, high selectivity, and sensitivity. Owing to their specific substrates and catalytic functions, enzymes are the most commonly used bioactive agents in μPADs. Enzymatic μPADs are various in design, fabrication, and detection methods. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the development of enzymatic μPADs by considering the methods of detection and fabrication. Particularly, techniques for mass production of these enzymatic μPADs for use in different fields such as medicine, environment, agriculture, and food industries are critically discussed. This paper aims to provide a critical review of μPADs and discuss different fabrication methods as the central parts of the μPADs production categorized into printable and non-printable methods. In addition, state-of-the-art technologies such as fully printed enzymatic μPADs for rapid, low-cost, and mass production and improvement have been considered.