Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title









School of Science


Thomas, J. B., KV, S., Sulthan, S. M., & Al-Jumaily, A. (2023). Deep feature meta-learners ensemble models for Covid-19 CT scan classification. Electronics, 12(3), 684.


The infectious nature of the COVID-19 virus demands rapid detection to quarantine the infected to isolate the spread or provide the necessary treatment if required. Analysis of COVID-19-infected chest Computed Tomography Scans (CT scans) have been shown to be successful in detecting the disease, making them essential in radiology assessment and screening of infected patients. Single-model Deep CNN models have been used to extract complex information pertaining to the CT scan images, allowing for in-depth analysis and thereby aiding in the diagnosis of the infection by automatically classifying the chest CT scan images as infected or non-infected. The feature maps obtained from the final convolution layer of the Deep CNN models contain complex and positional encoding of the images’ features. The ensemble modeling of these Deep CNN models has been proved to improve the classification performance, when compared to a single model, by lowering the generalization error, as the ensemble can meta-learn from a broader set of independent features. This paper presents Deep Ensemble Learning models to synergize Deep CNN models by combining these feature maps to create deep feature vectors or deep feature maps that are then trained on meta shallow and deep learners to improve the classification. This paper also proposes a novel Attentive Ensemble Model that utilizes an attention mechanism to focus on significant feature embeddings while learning the Ensemble feature vector. The proposed Attentive Ensemble model provided better generalization, outperforming Deep CNN models and conventional Ensemble learning techniques, as well as Shallow and Deep meta-learning Ensemble CNNs models. Radiologists can use the presented automatic Ensemble classification models to assist identify infected chest CT scans and save lives.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.