Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

European Journal of Applied Physiology




Centre for Human Performance / School of Medical and Health Sciences




Lin, Z., Blazevich, A. J., Abbiss, C. R., Wilkie, J. C., & Nosaka, K. (2023). Neuromuscular fatigue and muscle damage following a simulated singles badminton match. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 123, 1229-1240.



To understand muscle damage in badminton, changes in neuromuscular function were investigated after simulated badminton singles matches performed by ten state-level male players.


Each participant played eight matches and measurements were taken before, immediately after, and 1 and 24 h after each match. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque of the knee extensors and flexors, voluntary activation (VA) during MVC and torques generated by doublet (TDoublet), 20 (T20) and 80 Hz (T80) electrical stimulations of the knee extensors were measured from the dominant leg (the racket-hold arm side). Muscle soreness was assessed by a 100-mm visual analogue scale from both legs. The number of lunges performed by each participant in each match was analysed by videos, and its relations to other measures were examined.


Pre-match knee extensor and flexor MVC torques were 278.4 ± 50.8 Nm and 143.0 ± 36.2 Nm, respectively. Knee extensor MVC torque of the dominant leg decreased immediately (12.0 ± 2.9 %) and 1 h post-match (16.0 ± 3.2 %), but returned to baseline at 24 h post-match. VA (11.4 ± 2.9 %), TDoublet (13.1 ± 6.0 %), T20 (31.1 ± 12.3 %) and T80 (25.5 ± 7.9 %) decreased (p < 0.01) immediately post-match but recovered by 24 h post-match. A significant correlation (r = − 0.64, p < 0.01) was observed between the total number of lunges performed in a match (160 – 240 times) and the magnitude of decrease in MVC torque (6.4 – 14.7 %). Muscle soreness developed more (p < 0.05) for the dominant (51.5 ± 11.6 mm) than the non-dominant leg (18.8 ± 8.6 mm).


Muscle damage induced by singles badminton matches was minimal, but the more the lunges are performed, the greater the neuromuscular fatigue.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.