Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

International Journal of Manpower




School of Business and Law


Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED)


This is an Authors Accepted Manuscript version of an article published by Emerald in International Journal of Manpower, at

This author accepted manuscript is deposited under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC) licence. This means that anyone may distribute, adapt, and build upon the work for non-commercial purposes, subject to full attribution. If you wish to use this manuscript for commercial purposes, please contact

Ho, N. T. T., Seet, P. S., Jones, J., & Hoang, H. T. (2023). Re-expatriation inclinations among skilled female self-initiated repatriates in Asia's rapidly emerging markets. International Journal of Manpower. Advance online publication.



Integrating identity theory and role theory, this study examines the re-expatriation inclinations of highly-skilled professional female self-initiated repatriates (SIRs) in an Asian rapidly emerging market (REM) and the reasons underlying these inclinations.


The authors conducted a survey on a sample of highly-skilled professional female SIRs in Vietnam (N = 248). Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the model.


The study found that female SIRs' career identity, family identity and social identity have a significant influence on their inclinations to re-expatriate. Attitude towards re-expatriation fully mediates the influence of family identity and career identity on re-expatriation inclinations.

Research limitations/implications

This research was limited to female SIRs in one REM, namely Vietnam, and may lack generalisability in countries and contexts.


By delineating the identity-related factors that contribute to skilled female SIRs' inclinations to re-expatriate and recognising gender as a complex, multifaceted social construct, the authors broaden the way expatriation is conceptualised and isolate factors that can inform practices for recruitment and retention of this important sub-set of international talent.



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