Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

JMIR Research Protocols






JMIR Publications


School of Arts and Humanities / School of Medical and Health Sciences / School of Nursing and Midwifery




Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship


Kutzer, Y., Whitehead, L., Quigley, E., & Stanley, M. (2022). The role of dysfunctional sleep beliefs in mediating the outcomes of web-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in community-dwelling older adults: Protocol for a single-group, nonrandomized trial. JMIR Research Protocols, 11(12), Article e32705.


Background: Sleeping well is an essential part of good health. Older adult populations report a high rate of sleep problems, with recent studies suggesting that cognitive processes as well as behavioral and hyperarousal-related mechanisms could be important factors in the development and maintenance of insomnia. Individuals who have an asynchronous or uncoupled sleep pattern and sleep appraisal-those who complain about their sleep but do not have poor sleep quality, and vice versa-might show differences in subjective sleep and sleep perceptions and other characteristics that could impact their treatment outcomes following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Objective: The purpose of this protocol is to describe the rationale and methods for a nonrandomized, single-arm trial assessing objective and subjective sleep quality in community-dwelling older adults aged 60-80 years with synchronous sleep patterns and sleep appraisal compared to those in older adults with asynchronous sleep patterns and sleep appraisal. The trial will further examine the role of cognitive, behavioral, and hyperarousal processes in mediating the treatment outcomes of web-based CBT-I. Methods: This trial aims to recruit a sample of 60 participants, who will be assigned to 1 of 4 sleep groups based on their sleep pattern and sleep appraisal status: complaining good sleepers, complaining poor sleepers, noncomplaining good sleepers, and noncomplaining poor sleepers, respectively. The trial will be completed in 2 phases: phase 1 will assess objective sleep (measured via wrist actigraphy) and subjective (self-reported) sleep. Phase 2 will investigate the impact of a web-based CBT-I program on the sleep outcomes of individuals with uncoupled sleep compared to that of individuals without uncoupled sleep, as well as the mediators of CBT-I. Results: Recruitment began in March 2020, and the last participants were recruited by March 2021. A total of 65 participants completed phases 1 and 2. Data analysis for phase 1 was finished in December 2021, and data analysis for phase 2 was finalized in July 2022. The results for phase 1 were submitted for publication in March 2022, and those for phase 2 will be submitted by the end of December 2022. Conclusions: This trial will provide guidance on factors that contribute to the variability of sleep in older adults and their sleep outcomes following CBT-I. The outcomes of this study could be valuable for future research attempting to tailor CBT-I to individual needs.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.