Combined evaluation of arterial stiffness and blood pressure promotes risk stratification of peripheral arterial disease
Centre for Precision Health
Background: Previous studies have reported the separate association of arterial stiffness (AS) and blood pressure with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the risk stratification capacity of AS on incident PAD beyond blood pressure status. Methods: A total of 8,960 participants from Beijing Health Management Cohort were enrolled at the first health visit between 2008 and 2018 and then followed until the incidence of PAD or 2019. Elevated AS was defined as brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (baPWV) > 1,400 cm/s, including moderate stiffness (1,400 ≤ baPWV < 1,800 cm/s) and severe stiffness (baPWV ≥ 1,800 cm/s). PAD was defined as ankle-brachial index < 0.9. A frailty Cox model was used to calculate the HR, integrated discrimination improvement, and net reclassification improvement. Results: During follow-up, 225 participants (2.5%) developed PAD. After adjusting for confounding factors, the highest risk for PAD was observed in the group with elevated AS and blood pressure (HR: 2.253; 95% CI: 1.472-3.448). Among participants with ideal blood pressure and those with well-controlled hypertension, PAD risk was still significant for severe AS. The results remained consistent in multiple sensitivity analyses. In addition, baPWV significantly improved the predictive capacity for PAD risk beyond systolic and diastolic blood pressures (integrated discrimination improvement 0.020 and 0.190, net reclassification improvement 0.037 and 0.303). Conclusions: This study suggests the clinical importance of combined evaluation and control of AS and blood pressure for the risk stratification and prevention of PAD.
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Wu, Z., Jiang, Y., Zhu, Q., Zhang, H., Li, Z., Wang, J., ... & Guo, X. (2023). Combined evaluation of arterial stiffness and blood pressure promotes risk stratification of peripheral arterial disease. JACC: Asia, 3(2), 287-297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacasi.2023.02.001