Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome
Centre for Precision Medicine
National Natural Science Foundation of China
Background: Observational studies demonstrated a bidirectional association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hypertension, whereas Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses supported the causality from T2D to hypertension but not causal from hypertension to T2D. We previously found that IgG N-glycosylation is associated with both T2D and hypertension, and thus IgG N-glycosylation might link the causality between them. Methods: We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify IgG N-glycosylation-quantitative-trait loci (QTLs) integrating GWAS for T2D and hypertension and then performed bidirectional univariable and multivariable MR analyses to infer the causal association among them. The inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) analysis was performed as the primary analysis, followed by some sensitivity analyses to explore the stability of the results. Results: Six putatively causal IgG N-glycans for T2D and four for hypertension were identified in the IVW method. Genetically predicted T2D increased the risk of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.177, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.037–1.338, P = 0.012) and vice versa (OR = 1.391, 95% CI = 1.081–1.790, P = 0.010). Multivariable MR showed that T2D remained at risk effect with hypertension ([OR] = 1.229, 95% CI = 1.140–1.325, P = 7.817 × 10–8) after conditioning on T2D-related IgG-glycans. Conversely, hypertension was associated with higher T2D risk (OR = 1.287, 95% CI = 1.107–1.497, P = 0.001) after adjusting for related IgG-glycans. No evidence of horizontal pleiotropy was observed, as MR‒Egger regression provided P values for intercept > 0.05. Conclusion: Our study validated the mutual causality between T2D and hypertension from the perspective of IgG N-glycosylation, further validating the “common soil” hypothesis underlying the pathogenesis of T2D and hypertension.
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