SAGE Open Medicine
Centre for Precision Health / School of Medical and Health Sciences / School of Science
Objectives: Micronutrients, especially calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are reported to reduce preeclampsia events via several factors such as endothelial cell control, optimal oxidative stress and a balanced angiogenic growth mediator. We evaluated the association of micronutrients with oxidative stress biomarkers, and angiogenic growth mediators in early-onset preeclampsia and late-onset preeclampsia. Methods: This case-control study recruited 197 preeclampsia (early-onset preeclampsia = 70 and late-onset preeclampsia = 127) as cases and 301 normotensive pregnant women as controls from the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Samples were collected after 20 weeks of gestation for both cases and controls and estimated for Ca, Mg, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, soluble endoglin, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, 8-epiprostaglandinF2-alpha and total antioxidant capacity. Results: Early-onset preeclampsia women had significantly lower levels of Ca, Mg, placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-A and total antioxidant capacity but higher levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, soluble endoglin, 8-epiprostaglandinF2-alpha, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1/placental growth factor ratio, 8-epiprostaglandinF2-alpha /placental growth factor ratio, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine/placental growth factor ratio and soluble endoglin/placental growth factor ratio than late-onset preeclampsia and normotensive pregnant women (p < 0.0001). Among the early-onset preeclampsia women, the first and second quartile for serum placental growth factor, first quartile for vascular endothelial growth factor-A and total antioxidant capacity and the fourth quartiles for serum sEng, serum sFlt-1, 8-epiPGF2 and 8-OHdG were independently associated with low Ca and Mg (p < 0.05). Among late-onset preeclampsia women, the fourth quartile for soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 was independently associated with low Ca and Mg (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Magnesium and calcium are associated with an imbalance in angiogenic growth mediators and oxidative stress biomarkers among preeclampsia women, particularly early-onset preeclampsia. Serial and routine measurement of these micronutrients would allow the monitoring of poor placental angiogenesis while enabling an understanding of the triggers of increased oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant in preeclampsia.
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