Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Thinking Skills and Creativity






School of Education




This is an Authors Accepted Manuscript version of an article published by Elsevier in Thinking and Creativity Skills. The published version is available at

Swanzy-Impraim, E., Morris, J. E., Lummis, G. W., & Jones, A. (2023). Gauging Ghanaian secondary visual arts teachers' levels of creativity: Four C trajectory of creativity. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 49, article 101318.


Drawing on the Four C Model of Creativity and Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT) as frameworks, the multi-site qualitative case study explored the creative practice of 16 Ghanaian secondary visual arts teachers in the Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis, as the 2019 National Pre-Tertiary Curriculum Framework mandates creativity. The researchers used the interpretivist and constructivist paradigms for the study, which employed interviews, documents review and participant observations to gather data from eight secondary schools. The data were analysed using thematic analysis, with two categories of teachers emerging: teacher-practitioners and non-teacher-practitioners. The practising teachers were categorised under little-c and Pro-c—none fell within the Big-C category. Practising teachers were seen to be more successful in enacting creativity in their teaching practice, meeting the aims of the curriculum framework. We recommend that education providers and stakeholders should encourage the artistic practice of visual arts teachers and make it an integral part of professional practice.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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