A food composition database for assessing nitrate intake from plant-based foods

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Food Chemistry




Nutrition and Health Innovation Research Institute / School of Medical and Health Sciences




The salary of JMH is supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia Senior Research Fellowship, Australia (Grant number APP1116973). The salary of JRL is supported by a National Heart Foundation of Australia Future Leader Fellowship (ID: 102817). The salary of LCB is supported by an NHMRC of Australia Emerging Leadership Investigator Grant (ID: 1172987) and a National Heart Foundation of Australia Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship (ID: 102498). The salary of MS is supported by a Royal Perth Hospital Research Foundation Fellowship (ID: CAF 130/2020) and an Emerging Leader Fellowship from the Future Health Research and Innovation Fund, Western Australian Department of Health. NPB is funded by a NHMRC Early Career Fellowship (Grant number APP1159914), Australia. The salary of CPB is supported by a Royal Perth Hospital Research Foundation ‘Lawrie Beilin’ Career Advancement Fellowship (ID: CAF 127/2020). This work was supported by a Department of Health (Western Australia) Merit Award.

Grant Number

NHMRC Number : 1172987, 1116973


Zhong, L., Blekkenhorst, L. C., Bondonno, N. P., Sim, M., Woodman, R. J., Croft, K. D., ... & Bondonno, C. P. (2022). A food composition database for assessing nitrate intake from plant-based foods. Food Chemistry, 394, 133411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133411


An up-to-date nitrate food composition database of plant-based foods is lacking. Such a resource is imperative to obtain a robust assessment of dietary nitrate intakes and facilitate more empirical evaluation of health implications. We updated and expanded our 2017 vegetable nitrate database by including data published between 2016 and 2021, and data on fruits, cereals, herbs, spices, pulses and nuts (1980 – 2021). Of the collated nitrate contents for 264 plant-based foods from 64 countries, 120 were obtained from three or more references. Despite substantial variations, leaf vegetables were the top nitrate-containing foods, followed by stem & shoot vegetables, herbs and spices, root vegetables, flower vegetables, tuber vegetables, nuts, fruit vegetables, legume/seed vegetables, fruits and cereals. Banana and strawberry contained far higher amounts of nitrate than previously recognised. In conjunction with the recent animal-based food nitrate & nitrite database, this database can now be used to evaluate dietary nitrate intake in clinical and epidemiological studies.



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