Journal of Clinical Medicine
National Health and Medical Research Council (Project Grants 513781 and APP1042231) Raine Foundation, University of Western Australia
Background: Although rates of cardiovascular disease complicating type 2 diabetes are declining, equivalent data for renal replacement therapy (RRT) are conflicting. The aim of this study was to characterize temporal changes in RRT incidence rates (IRs) in Australians with or without type 2 diabetes. Methods: Participants with type 2 diabetes from the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phases I (FDS1; n = 1291 recruited 1993–1996) and II (FDS2; n = 1509 recruited 2008–2011) were age-, sex-and postcode-matched 1:4 to people without diabetes and followed for first hospitalization for/with RRT. Five-year IRs, IR ratios (IRRs) for those with versus without diabetes in FDS1 and FDS2, and IR differences (IRDs), were calculated. Results: The 13,995 participants had a mean age of 64.8 years and 50.4% were males. For the type 2 diabetes cohorts, the 5-year RRT IR was nearly threefold higher in FDS2 versus FDS1 (IRR (95% CI): 2.85 (1.01–9.87)). Sixteen more participants with type 2 diabetes/10,000 person-years received RRT in FDS2 than FDS1 compared with an IRD of 2/10,000 person-years in those without diabetes. Type 2 diabetes increased RRT risk at least 5-fold. This increased risk was greater in Aboriginal participants who were relatively young when RRT was initiated and more prone to rapid progression to RRT. Multivariable analysis using the combined FDS type 2 diabetes cohorts confirmed albuminuria as a strong independent RRT risk factor. Conclusions: The incidence of RRT is increasing substantially in Australians with type 2 diabetes, especially in Aboriginals who progress to RRT more rapidly at a younger age than non-Aboriginals.
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