Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management




School of Business and Law




This is an Authors Accepted Manuscript version of an article published by Emerald in International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. the published version is available at

Zhang, J., Xie, C., & Huang, S. (2023). Resilient leadership in hospitality and tourism enterprises: Conceptualization and scale development. International Journal of Contemporary Management. Advance online publication.


Purpose: This study aims to conceptualize the dimensions of resilient leadership and develop the resilient leadership scale (RLS) through three studies. Design/methodology/approach: In Study 1, based on interviews with 77 leaders and 8 junior employees, a seven-factor resilient leadership model was constructed. In Study 2, exploratory factor analysis (n = 237) was conducted to refine the initial items. In Study 3, confirmatory factor analysis (n = 610) was performed to validate the dimensional structure identified in Study 2, and different types of validity of the RLS were assessed. Findings: The validated RLS composed of seven dimensions: contingency planning, improvisation, adaptive instructing, contingency control, emergency care, adjustment recovery and mutual growth. The scale showed desirable measurement qualities in terms of reliability and validity. Resilient leadership and its dimensions significantly impact employee turnover intentions and employee resilience. Research limitations/implications: This research contributes to the literature on the resilience of hospitality and tourism enterprises and enriches the research scope and theoretical framework of resilient leadership. Originality/value: This research revealed the resilient leadership responses to crisis in hospitality and tourism enterprises with practical implications for tourism enterprise leaders to deal with major crisis.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License