Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise




School of Medical and Health Sciences / Exercise Medicine Research Institute




This version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review (when applicable) and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at:

Bettariga, F., Lopomo, N. F., Civera, F., Lazzarini, S. G., Mantovani, L., & Maestroni, L. (2023). Reliability and validity of hand-held dynamometer and hand-held sphygmomanometer for testing shoulder isometric external and internal rotator muscles strength. Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise. Advance online publication.


Background: Shoulder strength evaluation is a recommended procedure in musculoskeletal rehabilitation. Aim: To examine hand-held sphygmomanometer (HHS) and hand-held dynamometer (HHD) intra- and inter-rater reliability during isometric shoulder external and internal rotation strength testing in prone rotation position in asymptomatic participants, and to compare these two testing modalities. Design: Reliability study. Methods: A total of 20 asymptomatic participants (27.7 ± 7.4 years; 77.1 ± 10.1 kg) attended a strength assessment consisting of HHS and HHD tests. Reliability was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), coefficient of variation (CV) with 95%CI, and standard error of measurement (SEM). Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis were used to compare HHS and HHD testing modalities. Results: “Good” to “excellent” intra (ICC range = 0.896 to 0.979) and inter-rater reliability scores (ICC range = 0.850 to 0.978) were displayed during both HHS and HHD tests during internal and external rotation strength assessments. Linear relationships between HHS and HHD measures were found, with coefficients of determination (R 2) ranging between 0.60 and 0.79. Conclusion: HHS and HHD resulted to be reliable strength assessment modalities for clinical practice. These assessment modes can be equally valid in assessing intra and inter-limb asymmetries in isometric shoulder rotation strength. The affordability and availability of HHS in ordinary clinical settings can facilitate its implementation in musculoskeletal practice.



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